CEAs comparing the same screening strategies combined with different HPV vaccine types, schedules and doses were not included 4. It may also allow for a higher chance of remission for patients.
A common method of treatment is a hysterectomy that will eliminate any chances a woman has, to conceive or remain fertile. The pathways in decision trees follow each intervention or process option in a series of logically ordered alternative events, denoted by branches emanating from chance nodes circular symbols.
Tests could prevent a person from sleeping with another knowing that they have it and also give them the chance to begin taking medications for it.
The strategy used for the key words were based on an exploded list of associated MeSH words identified on PubMed and free text words, as below: Developed countries that have pap smears show a lot less cases of cervical cancer, because if it is detected it is very easy to get rid of.
The data extracted was analysed and a narrative description based on their reporting quality, methods and results, grouping them into categories was undertaken. While there is no cure for cervical cancer, women can go into remission with radiation treatments and chemotherapy Ranjbar, The most common symptoms of cervical cancer are abnormal bleeding and discharge through the vagina and pain during sexual intercourse.
Over types of HPV have been identified and more than 40 of these infect the genital area.
Most commonly, such models simulate the transition of a hypothetical cohort of individuals through the Markov model over time, allowing the analyst to estimate Term paper on cervical cancer costs and outcomes.
This means that expected years of life gained or expected improvements in health and wellbeing are valued in terms of currency. There are many parts of the world that do not have these technologies and that is why the US has less incidence.
Persistent HPV infection can cause pre-cancerous cervical lesions and invasive cervical cancer thereafter. The papers were appraised using the checklist version created in Excel and completed in August They track the progression of potentially heterogeneous individuals with the accumulating history of each individual determining transitions, costs, and health outcome.
This method involves the collection of exfoliated cells from the cervix followed by microscopic examination of the same after staining, for cellular abnormalities.
Screening or vaccination or none Comparators C: Primary Prevention — Vaccines: A gynecologist may perform blood tests and a pap smear and if the test results come back positive, the doctor may choose to identify whether there is cancer present by performing a biopsy, performing an excision to identify dermal adnexal differentiation.
Thus, prevention strategies are largely targeted at preventing HPV infection or preventing disease progression for those who are infected. The main objectives of this review are to: Women who are infected with HPV may have their infection clear, progress or persist.
The threshold that this decision rule is applied to differs between economic settings. This decision rule states that any intervention with a price per unit effectiveness above a fixed threshold, would not be implemented and any program with an ICER below the threshold would be implemented.
Evidence suggests that cervical cancer screening using cytology is one of the most successful public health prevention programs, particularly when implemented in a mass strategy The purpose of cost effectiveness analysis is to identify the best method to spend a set budget to achieve a particular goal It is caused by the Human Papillomavirus Virus HPV viruswhich causes the rise in the malignant neoplasm thus causing cancer in the cervix uteri Stewart, There is much controversy surrounding CBAs on account of ethical and practical reliability questions on how one may accurately express health outcomes in monetary terms.
The purpose of this literature review is to collect and collate the best possible evidence available to answer this question. CUAs use a global measure of health outcome, such as quality-adjusted life-years QALYs by undertaking one program instead of another, and the results are often expressed as a cost per QALY gained.
The end points of each pathway, denoted by terminal nodes triangular symbolsare assigned values or pay-offs, such as costs, life years, or quality adjusted life years QALYs. The definition and number of health states and the duration of the cycles will be governed by the decision problem The probability of staying in a state or moving to another one in each cycle is determined by a set of defined transition probabilities.
Economic evaluations are utilized to identify, measure, and compare health care intervention costs and benefits, to aid in efficient resource allocation Patients are assumed to reside in one of a finite number of health states at any point in time and make transitions between those health states over a series of discrete time intervals or cycles.
This test has shown higher sensitivity and reproducibility of results than Cytology, for detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CINalthough lower specificity 30 These models simulate the progression of individuals rather than hypothetical cohorts.
There are 2 types of preventive measures available to reduce incidence and mortality from cervical cancer: This method provides internal validity, while the main limitation is that the results may suffer from external generalizability The aim of this systematic literature review is to present the comprehensive results of all available international evidence on the cost-effectiveness analysis of different cervical screening strategies for HPV vaccinated populations.
CEA is used where the need for a project has already been established, but uncertainty remains over the best method for achieving it Clinical trials may exist in the future for future treatments.Cervical cancer is the second foremost occurring cancer in women after breast cancer. Cervical cancer is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the human papillomavirus, or HPV.
Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the lining of the cervix. Cervical cancers do not form suddenly; there is a gradual change of normal cells within the cervix. Some women with pre-cancerous changes of the cervix will develop cancer.
Cervical Cancer Cervical Cancer occurs when abnormal cells on the cervix grow out of control. The lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina is called the cervix.
Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in developing countries.
The cause of cervical cancer is the human papilloma virus (HPV). Cervical cancer has other risk factors, like: having multiple male sexual partners, starting to have sexual intercourse at an early age, having.
Cancer has grown to become one the leading causes of death in the world today. Cervical cancer affects the cervix, which is the lower narrow end of the uterus.
It is caused by the Human Papillomavirus Virus (HPV virus), which causes the rise in the malignant neoplasm thus causing cancer in the cervix uteri (Stewart, ). Cervical Cancer, HPV and HPV Vaccine 1.
Some types of HPV are strongly associated with a high risk of developing cervical cancer/5(1).Download