It helps the researcher to develop questions that make sense in the native language or are culturally relevant.
Fluency in the native language helps gain access to sensitive information and increases rapport with participants. Counting persons or incidents of observed activity is useful in helping one recollect the situation, especially when viewing complex events or events in which there are many participants.
A variation of this exercise is to have students turn their backs to the television or listen to a radio program with which they are unfamiliar, and have them conduct the exercise in that fashion, without sight to guide their interpretations.
He includes more than just observation in the process of being a participant observer; he includes observation, natural conversations, interviews of various sorts, checklists, questionnaires, and unobtrusive methods. However, candidates should be discouraged from viewing the textbook and any other authoritative source materials as simply a body of knowledge to be absorbed mechanically and reproduced rigidly in answering examination questions.
They suggest that the researcher take a participatory approach to research by including community members in the research process, beginning with obtaining culturally appropriate permission to conduct research and ensuring that the research addresses issues of importance to the community.
This mapping process uses only one of the five senses—vision. Part b answers should not have lengthy tracts of description, 2 as candidates will access the higher marks by extending the range of evidence used and the amount of analytical content.
This option is less desirable, as students sometimes find it difficult to find a program with which they do not have some familiarity.
BERNARD notes that those anthropologists who are in the field for extended periods of time are better able to obtain information of a sensitive nature, such as information about witchcraft, sexuality, political feuds, etc. Most anthropologists, he notes, need to maintain a sense of objectivity through distance.
Several years ago, when I submitted an article for publication, one of the reviewers provided feedback that it would be helpful to the reader if I described the participants as, for example, "a 35 year old divorced mother of three, who worked at Wal-Mart.
Having good writing skills, that is, writing concisely and compellingly, is also necessary to good participant observation. The responses of individual candidates are reproduced exactly and include original errors of grammar, spelling and punctuation.
He defines participant observation as the process of establishing rapport within a community and learning to act in such a way as to blend into the community so that its members will act naturally, then removing oneself from the setting or community to immerse oneself in the data to understand what is going on and be able to write about it.
The marks for each AS paper will be divided between three assessment objectives: One should also consider beginning to do some writing as fieldwork proceeds. She took a job as a rent collector to interact with the people in buildings and offices and took a job as a seamstress in a sweatshop to better understand their lives.
Candidates are required to answer two questions, chosen from different sections, and the examination is of 1 hour 30 minutes duration.
By staying involved with the culture over a period of years, data about social changes that occur over time are more readily perceived and understood.
This role also has disadvantages, in that there is a trade off between the depth of the data revealed to the researcher and the level of confidentiality provided to the group for the information they provide.
I, too, have found that, by taking a participatory approach to my research with them, I have been asked to participate in studies that they wish to have conducted. It further involves verifying information gathered to determine if the researcher correctly understood the information collected.
Sometimes the researcher needs to take a break from the constant observation and note taking to recuperate. Participant observation also enables the researcher to collect both quantitative and qualitative data through surveys and interviews. The question of whether one has understood correctly lends itself to the internal validity question of whether the researcher has correctly understood the participants.
These key informants must be people who are respected by other cultural members and who are viewed to be neutral, to enable the researcher to meet informants in all of the various factions found in the culture. Activities and projects designed to improve study skills might also be included in the work that candidates are required to complete in their own time e.
He suggests that, to move around gracefully within the culture, one should: SPRADLEY describes the various roles that observers may take, ranging in degree of participation from non-participation activities are observed from outside the research setting to passive participation activities are observed in the setting but without participation in activities to moderate participation activities are observed in the setting with almost complete participation in activities to complete participation activities are observed in the setting with complete participation in the culture.
DeWALT and DeWALT add that it improves the quality of data collection and interpretation and facilitates the development of new research questions or hypotheses p.
It involves looking at the interaction of the participants with the environment. For example, when one wishes to conduct research in a school, permission must be granted by the school principal and, possibly, by the district school superintendent.
Success in the examination will depend heavily on the ability of the candidate to demonstrate the skills identified in the three assessment objectives. They suggest using a nested sampling frame to determine differences in knowledge about a topic. He further suggests asking participants to help structure the report.Participant Observation and Grand Theory Essay Participant Observation and Grand Theory Bronislaw Malinowski, with his ground-breaking field work of the Trobriand Islander community in the beginning of the 20th century still today counts as a pioneer, if not.
Assess the strengths of Participant Observation in Social Research (16) The main strength of using Participant Observation is that it usually yields extremely valid data compared to most, if not all, other research methods.
Participant Observation Participant Observation is the study of a culture or society usually carried out by living for an extended period of time with its members.
Participant observation method (Essay Sample) Instructions: Explain why a researcher who is studying homeless street people might choose to use participant observation instead of other research methods. cite information found in our course materials to support your answer.
Participant Observation in Anthropology Essay - Participant observation is a method of collecting information and data about a culture and is carried out by the researcher immersing themselves in the culture they observing.
Feb 05, · Discuss the Advantages and Disadvantages, to the Participating Countries and the Rest of the World, of Forming a Free Trade Arrangement.
China, Japan and Korea Are Now Undertaking Preliminary Research into the Formation of a Free Trade Area.Download