HewittCastles, and Korpito cite a few leading examples, argue that variations across nations in the strength and reformist character of labor unions and social democratic parties account for large differences in the levels of spending for and redistributive impact of welfare-state programs.
Andrei Sakharov, once a prominent Soviet dissident, advocated the active furtherance of convergence. Despite the controversy over, and subsequent disillusionment with, early versions of convergence theory in the study of modernization, and the often mixed results of empirical studies discussed above, it is clear that the concept of societal convergence and convergence theories that allow for the possibility of divergence and invariance provides a useful and potentially powerful analytical framework within which to conduct cross-national studies across a broad range Convergence thesis sociology social phenomena.
Ramirez "World Society and the Nation-State. The large research literature related on this question, reviewed by Formhas produced mixed evidence with respect to convergence. Counterposed against these factors are various sources of uniformity, such as technological change, exposure to the industrial world, and a worldwide trend toward increased access to education leading to an attenuation of social and economic inequality.
A large spread in fertility rates among nations at the beginning of the s gave way to declining rates of fertility ending with a nearly uniform pattern of zero population growth in the s.
McLuhan, Marshall Exploration in Communications. At the next point, you now repeat the whole process. In the second stage, death rates drop as a result of improvements in living conditions and medical care while fertility rates remain high, and population levels increase rapidly.
This difference in political power led to little spending on the establishment of institutions such as public schools and slowed down their progress.
Increasingly, developed countries would become more and more alike in their economic and social structures. Japan has been regarded as an exceptional case among industrialized nations because of its strong cultural traditions based on mutual obligation between employers and employees.
The attempt to discover common features of the class structure across advanced industrial societies is a central concern for social theorists of many stripes. Since levels of economic development and growth of the elderly population both represent areas of convergence among advanced societies, it is reasonable to expect that patterns of welfare-state development will also tend to converge.
The demise of state socialism has revived interest in the possibilities of global economic and political convergence among advanced industrial societies see, for example, Lenski et al. In its most simplified form the convergence thesis postulated that, as economies develop along modern lines, certain common characteristics and patterns emerge.
Structural-functionalist theorists, such as Parsons and Daviswhile not actually employing the terminology of convergence theory, paved the way for its development and use in modernization studies through their efforts to develop a systematic statement of the functional prerequisites and structural imperatives of modern industrial society ; these include an occupational structure based on achievement rather than ascription, and the common application of universalistic rather than particularistic evaluative criteria.
As Form observes, convergence theory passed through a cycle typical of social science theories: For example, Alexander Gerschenkron states that governments can substitute for missing prerequisites to trigger catch-up growth.
It does not explain why some nations have had zero growth for many decades e. Coughlin Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Centralization andthe Welfare State. Economic Growth, Ideology, Structure. Convergence theorists are surely on solid ground when they assert that programs to protect against the seven or eight basic risks of industrial life are primarily responses to economic development.
These comments echo earlier sentiments expressed by Weinberg and Baum about how to salvage the useful elements of standard convergence theory while avoiding the pitfalls of a simplistic functionalist-evolutionary approach. Some people prefer diverging, as it means the potential of a wrong decision is never reached.
The theory also assumes that technology is freely traded and available to developing countries that are attempting to catch-up. These comments echo earlier sentiments expressed by Weinberg and Baum concerning how to salvage the helpful areas of standard convergence theory while remaining in the pitfalls in the simplistic functionalist-transformative approach.
Further, the level of divergence is increasing" p. New BrunswickN. In the third stage, fertility rates begin to decline, with total size of the population leveling off or even decreasing. For example, Wilensky found that among sixty nations studied the proportion of the population sixty-five years of age and older and the age of social security programs were the major determinants of levels of total welfare-state spending as a percent of gross national product.
Giddens, Anthony The Consequences of Modernity. However, showing that societies have adopted the same basic programs. They argued that the United States and Canada had land suitable for growing wheat which meant that they had small scale farming, since wheat does not benefit from economies of scale, and this led to a relatively equal distribution of wealth and political power enabling the population to vote for broad public education.
Jamieson Comparative Social Policy: However, the disagreement among these studies and scholars arguing for convergence may be simply a function of case selection.
Problem-solving focus It is easy when problem-solving to get lost in the detail. The core notion of convergence theory is that as nations achieve similar levels of economic development they will become more alike in terms of these and other aspects of social life.
University of California Press. For others, it includes the worry that you might have got it wrong.Sociology: Understanding and Changing the Social World, Comprehensive Edition, v. by Steven E. Barkan. Describe the central views of convergence theory.
Explain how emergent norm theory takes a middle ground between. An early statement of the class convergence thesis was made by Lipset and Zetterberg (), to the effect that observed rates of mobility between social classes tend to be similar from one industrial society to another.
Thesis Statements. This tip sheet is adapted from Chapter 5 of. Writing for Sociology (2. nd. edition) A thesis statement is a sentence or. Convergence theory presumes that as nations move from the early stages of industrialization toward becoming fully industrialized, they begin to resemble other industrialized societies in terms of societal norms and technology.
The characteristics of these nations effectively converge. Using a repeated sequence of divergence and convergence is a great way of maintaining focus in many situations. You start with divergence, explore only as far as you have the time for and can handle the complexity it creates. Convergence thesis – – custom writing service.
Once the convergence thesis or some variant out of this still had any predictive validity for social alarm systems was among the issues inside the conference.Download